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    A research led by the University of Sydney has found that people often think otherpeople are stating at them even when they aren't. When in doubt, the human brain is morelikely to tell its owner that he's under the gaze of another person.
    "Gaze perception--the ability to tell what a person is looking at--is a social cue thatpeople ofen take for granted," says Professor Colin Clifford from the University's Schoolof Psychology.
To tell if they're under someone's gaze, people look at the position of the otherperson's eyes and the direction of their heads. These visual cues are then sent to the brainwhere there are specific areas that compute this information.
    However, the brain doesn't just passively receive information from the eyes. Thestudy shows that when people have limited visual cues, such as in dark conditions or whenthe other person is wearing sunglasses, the brain takes over with what it "knows".
    The researchers created images of faces and asked people to observe where the faceswere looking. "We made it difficult for the observers to see where the eyes were pointedso they would have to rely on their prior knowledge to judge the faces' direction of gaze,"Professor Clifford explains. "It turns out that we're likely to believe that others are staringat us, especially when we're uncertain."
    "There are several speculations to why humans have this bias," Professor Cliffordsays. "Direct gaze can signal dominance or a threat, and if you perceive something as athreat, you would not want to miss it. So assuming that the other person is looking at youmay simply be a safer strategy. Also, direct gaze is often a social cue that the other personwants to communicate with us, so it's a signal for an upcoming interaction."
    "It's important that we find out whether it's innate or learned--and how this mightaffect people with certain mental conditions," Professor Clifford says.
    Research has shown, for example, that people who have autism ( 孤独症 ) are lessable to tell whether someone is looking at them. People with social anxiety, on the otherhand, have a higher tendency to think that they are under the stare of others.
    "So if it is a learned behaviour, we could help them practice this task--onepossibility is letting them observe a lot of faces with different eyes and head directions,and giving them feedback on whether their observations are accurate."
1.[单选题]What can be inferred from the last three paragraphs?
  • A.It has been proved that direct gaze is learned.
  • B.It doesn't matter if the bias is learned or not.
  • C.People who suffer from autism don't look at others.
  • D.People with social anxiety are more likely to have the bias.
  • 解题思路:根据题干定位到原文最后三段。倒数第三段中表明,弄清楚这种偏见是先天固有还是后天习得,对我们来说很重要。故排除A和B。倒数第二段中指出,研究表明,自闭症患者很难辨别他人是否在盯着自己,故排除C。相比之下,社交焦虑症患者则更容易认为自己正在他人的注视之下,因而D项表述符合原文,故选D。
2.[单选题]What do people do to tell if they are being stared at?
  • A.Make full use of their instinctive feelings.
  • B.Try to guess other people's position.
  • C.Use their brains to recall as much as possible.
  • D.Find visual cues from other people's eyes and heads.
  • 解题思路:根据题干中的to tell ifthey are being stared at定位到原文第三段第一句。该句中提到,人们通过观察他人眼睛的位置和头部的方向来判定对方是否正在注视着自己。题干中的being stared at与原文中的under someone’s gaze同义。因而D项表述符合原文,故选D。
3.[单选题]What can we learn from the research led by the University of Sydney?
  • A.Human brain can tell if its owner is under someone's gaze.
  • B.Human brain cannot identify other people's gaze when in doubt.
  • C.People in doubt often think they are stared at by others.
  • D.People tend to stare at others when they are in doubt.
  • 解题思路:根据题干中的the research led by the University of Sydney定位到原文第一段。该段中提到,悉尼大学的一项研究发现,人们常常感觉别人正在盯着自己看,即使事实并非如此。确切地说,当人类的大脑处于怀疑之中时,则更有可能告诉它的主人有人正在注视着他。因而C项表述符合原文,故选C。
4.[单选题]What does Professor Clifford say about direct gaze?
  • A.It can signal dominance and bias.
  • B.It may make people feel threatened.
  • C.People tend to avoid direct gaze.
  • D.People may use it as a safe strategy.
  • 解题思路:根据题干中的Professor Clifford say about direct gaze定位到原文第六段。第六段第二句中引用克利福德教授的话指出,直视会发出一种支配或威胁的信号。如果你察觉到了某种潜在威胁,肯定不会忽视它。因此假想别人正在注视自己不过是一种更安全的策略而已。因而B项表述符合原文,故B。
5.[单选题]What will happen when people don't have enough visual cues according to the study?
  • A.They will make judgments through prior knowledge.
  • B.They will believe someone is staring at them.
  • C.They will try hard to see where the eyes are pointed.
  • D.They will depend on the limited visual cues to judge.
  • 解题思路:根据题干中的don’t have enough visual cues定位到原文第四段第二句和第五段第二句。这两句提到,研究表明,如果人们得到的视觉线索有限——比如当光线较暗或当别人戴着墨镜时,大脑就会根据经验做出判断。我们故意提高难度,使得观察者很难辨别眼睛所看之处,因此他们不得不以自己的先验知识进行判断。题干中的don’thave enough与原文中的limited同义。因而A项表述符合原文,故选A。
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  • 参考答案:D,D,C,B,A
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