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    When most people think of the word "education", they think of a pupil as a sort of animate (有生命的) sausage container. Into this empty container, the teachers are supposed to stuff"education".
   But genuine education, as Socrates knew more than two thousand years ago, is not inserting the stuffing of information into a person, but rather eliciting knowledge from him; it is the drawing out of what is in the mind.
    "The most important part of education," once wrote William Ernest Hocking, the distinguished Harvard philosopher, "is this instruction of a man in what he has inside of him."
    And, as Edith Hamilton has reminded us, Socrates never said, "I know, learn from me." He said, rather, "Look into your own selves and find the spark of truth that God has put into every heart and that only you can develop to flame."
    In the dialogue called the "Meno", Socrates takes an ignorant slave boy, without a day of schooling, and proves to the amazed observers that the boy really "knows" geometry -- because the principles of geometry are already in his mind, waiting to be called out. 
    So many of the discussions and controversies about the content of education are useless and inconclusive because they are concerned with what should "go into" the student rather than with what should be "taken out", and how this can best be done. The college student who once said to me, after a lecture, "I spend so much time studying that I don't have a chance to learn anything," was expressing his dissatisfaction with sausage-container view of education.
    He was being so stuffed with varied facts, with such an indigestible mass of material, that he had no time (and was given no encouragement) to draw on his own resources, to use his own mind for analysing and synthesizing and evaluating this material.
    Education, to have any meaning beyond the purpose of creating well-informed dunces (劣学生), must elicit from the pupil what is potential in every human being -- the rules of reason, the inner knowledge of what is proper for men to be and do, the ability to assess evidence and come to conclusions that can generally be agreed on by all open minds and worm hearts.
    Pupils are more like oysters (牡蛎) than sausages. The job of teaching is not to stuff them and then seal them up, but to help them open and reveal the riches within. There are pearls in each of us, if only we knew how to cultivate them with enthusiasm and insistence.
1.[单选题]The phrase "well-informed dunces" (Line 1, Para.9) refers to__________.
  • A.well-educated but stupid students
  • B.intelligent and efficient students
  • C.talented but incapable students
  • D.knowledgeable but inactive students
  • 解题思路:由第8段提到的…being SO stuffed with varied facts,with such an indigestible mass of material…had no time…to draw on his own resources,to use his own mind…可知,在填鸭式(sausage—container)教育方式下培养出来的学生只是被动地接受很多难以理解的东西,虽然他们知道得很多,却没有开发利用自己的才智。由此可以推断。well.Inform eddunces应该是指受过良好教育但仍很笨的学生,故答案为A.。
2.[单选题]As Edith Hamilton reminded us about Socrates, students___________.
  • A.should learn knowledge from their teachers with modesty
  • B.should investigate what the God has put in their hearts
  • C.were encouraged to discover the truth themselves
  • D.were required to find the spark to flame
  • 解题思路:第4段提到,就像伊迪丝·汉密尔顿提醒我们的那样,苏格拉底从来不说“我知道,向我学习吧”。相反,他会说“审视你自己,找到上帝在每个人心中播下的真理的火花,只有你才能将这个火花变成火焰”。由此可知,苏格拉底是在鼓励学生自己寻找真理,故答案为C。由Socrates never said,“I know,learn from ”可知,他不赞成从老师那里获取知识,故排除A。B是对find the spark of truth that God has put into every heart的错误理解;D是对spark和flame的罕面理解,故排除。
3.[单选题]According to the view of education as oysters,__________.
  • A.teaching content is primarily decided by teachers
  • B.students should acquire as much knowledge as possible
  • C.knowledge can only be acquired through hard work
  • D.teachers' job is mainly to find out students' values
  • 解题思路:最后一段提到,学生更像是牡蛎,而不是香肠。教育的任务不是将他们塞满,然后封住,而是帮助他们开启和展现里面所富含的东西、由此可知,老师的主要任务就是帮助学生发现和展示他们的价值,故答案为D。A在文中未提及;B与原文意思相反,故排除;C是针对老师应该cultivate them with enthusiasm and insistence设的干扰项.
4.[单选题]What did Socrates say about genuine education?
  • A.Education should draw students' attention.
  • B.Education demands to absorb much knowledge.
  • C.Education requires explicit knowledge transfer.
  • D.Education aims to develop students' potentials.
  • 解题思路:第2段提到,……真正的教育……是从他身上激发出知识……是诱导出头脑中已有的内容,D.中的develop students’ potentials(开发学生的潜能)是对此的同义转述,故答案为D。A是针对the drawing out of what is in the mind设的干扰项;文中提到真正的教育需要从学生那里eliciting knowledge,B.中仅提到demands to absorb much knowledge(要求吸收许多知识),与文意不符,故排除;C.中的 explicit(详细的)knowledge transfer是针对eliciting(引出)knowledge在形式上设的干扰项。
5.[单选题]The example of the slave boy shows that ____________.
  • A.the boy is a genius with rich knowledge
  • B.schooling is unnecessary to young people
  • C.clever people can learn geometry by themselves
  • D.knowledge exists in people's mind waiting to be explored
  • 解题思路:第5段首先提到没有上过一天学的无知童奴事实上已经“懂得”几何学,破折号后面解释原因:因为几何原理已经在他的脑中,只是在等着被唤出来,由此可以推断,知识存在于每个人的心中,只是需要我们自己开发利用,故答案为D。A无法根据童奴的例子推断出来,故排除;B是针对without a day of schooling进行的错误推断;C是针对the boy really“knows”geometry设的干扰项。
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  • 参考答案:A,C,D,D,D
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